The latin ‘canis’ means dog. , The common ancestor of the coyote and the wolf has admixed with a ghost population of an extinct unidentified canid. Tamaskan Physical Characteristics: Skin Type: Hair. In Asia and Europe, their diet is dominated by wild medium-sized hoofed mammals and domestic species.  The Dena'ina believed wolves were once men and viewed them as brothers. Genus Canis.  In many countries of the European Union, the wolf is strictly protected under the 1979 Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Appendix II) and the 1992 Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora (Annex II and IV). Canis lupus was recorded by Carl Linnaeus in his publication Systema Naturae in 1758. As many as 4,000 wolves may be harvested in Canada each year. Their mortality rate is 60–80%. Wolves may be hunted or trapped with a license; around 1,200 wolves are harvested annually.  In middle Russia, exceptionally large males are given a maximum weight of 69–79 kg (152–174 lb).  The breeding pair typically monopolizes food to continue producing pups. One Greek myth tells of Lycaon of Arcadia being transformed into a wolf by Zeus as punishment for his evil deeds. , Cases of rabid wolves are low when compared to other species, as wolves do not serve as primary reservoirs of the disease, but can be infected by animals such as dogs, jackals and foxes.  Studies in 2017 and 2018 found that the Himalayan wolf is part of a lineage that is basal to other wolves and split from them 691,000–740,000 years ago. Most rabid wolf attacks occur in the spring and autumn periods.  These marks are generally left every 240 m (260 yd) throughout the territory on regular travelways and junctions.  The winter fur is highly resistant to the cold.  The mean body mass of the wolf is 40 kg (88 lb), the smallest specimen recorded at 12 kg (26 lb) and the largest at 79.4 kg (175 lb). Results indicate that five related haplotypes formed a clade that is basal to all other wolves. They usually work the hardest at killing prey, and may rest after a long hunt and allow the rest of the family to eat undisturbed. Thorny-headed worms rarely infect wolves, though three species have been identified in Russian wolves: Nicolla skrjabini, Macrocantorhynchus catulinus, and Moniliformis moniliformis. Large hunting dogs such as Swedish Elkhounds are more likely to survive wolf attacks because of their better ability to defend themselves.  Hind leg wounds are inflicted from the rear, midway up the hock with the canine teeth. The wolf can be found between sea level and 3,000 m (9,800 ft).  Farley Mowat's largely fictional 1963 memoir Never Cry Wolf is widely considered to be the most popular book on wolves, having been adapted into a Hollywood film and taught in several schools decades after its publication.  A study in 2016 indicates that a population bottleneck was followed by a rapid radiation from an ancestral population at a time during, or just after, the Last Glacial Maximum. with taxonomic ambiguity: Workshop conclusions and recommendations.  Territorial fights are among the principal causes of wolf mortality, one study concluding that 14–65% of wolf deaths in Minnesota and the Denali National Park and Preserve were due to other wolves. In the midwestern U.S. at least three members of the genus are found in sites that date from the last Ice Age. Canis lupus Name Synonyms Aenocyon milleri (Merriam, 1912) Canis furlongi Hay, 1927 Canis lycaon Schreber, 1775 Canis milleri (Merriam, 1912) Canis nubilus Say, 1823 Canis occidentalis Merriam, 1912 Canis pambasileus Elliot, 1905 Canis petrolei Stock, 1938 Canis tundrarum Miller, 1912 Canis variabilis Wied-Neuwied, 1841 , As well as their physical adaptations for hunting hoofed mammals, wolves possess certain behavioural, cognitive, and psychological adaptations to assist with their hunting lifestyle.  In modern times, the wolf is widely used as an emblem for military and paramilitary groups.  During times of prey abundance caused by calving or migration, different wolf packs may join together temporarily. , The wolf is a social animal.  Wolf packs travel constantly in search of prey, covering roughly 9% of their territory per day, on average 25 km/d (16 mi/d). Global wolf range based on the IUCN (2018). The Arctic wolf (Canis lupus arctos) is a subspecies of the grey wolf that inhabits the Arctic regions of North America and Greenland.  How wolves react to humans depends largely on their prior experience with people: wolves lacking any negative experience of humans, or which are food-conditioned, may show little fear of people. , A 2016 genomic study suggests that Old World and New World wolves split around 12,500 years ago followed by the divergence of the lineage that led to dogs from other Old World wolves around 11,100–12,300 years ago. , In Europe, wolves eat apples, pears, figs, melons, berries and cherries. The most harmful to wolves, particularly pups, is the mange mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), though they rarely develop full-blown mange, unlike foxes. Scent marking involves urine, feces, and anal gland scents. Wolves may catch tularemia from lagomorph prey, though its effect on wolves is unknown. Genus Canis first appeared in the late Miocene, c.4.5-9 mya (Nowak 2003) North America fossils date to 4-11 mya (Tedford et al. For other uses, see, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora, Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology, Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, "Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species", "How Much Is That in Dog Years?